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Sound Art - Electronic, Tape, Computer & Electroacoustic Music

Pytheas Sound Art
Contemporary Electroacoustic Music

Delia Derbyshire: Falling, from "The Dreams" (1964)

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Electroacoustic Pioneers, Manifestos, Inventions and Premieres


Filippo Marinetti
(1876-1944) @ Wikipedia
Luigi Russolo (1883-1947) @ Wikipedia
Edgard Varèse (1883-1965)
Kurt Schwitters (1887-1948) @ Wikipedia
Léon Theremin (1896-1993)  -  the inventor of the Theremin (c.1919-20) @ Wikipedia
Tristan Tzara (1896-1963) @ Wikipedia
Maurice Martenot (1898-1980)  -  the inventor of the Ondes Martenot (1928) @ Wikipedia
~  ~  ~
Magnetic Wire Recorder invented

~  ~  ~
George Antheil (1900-1959)
Otto Luening (1900-1996)
Pierre Schaeffer (1910-1995)
Josef Tal (1910-2008)
~  ~  ~  
Balilla Pratella, "Technical Manifesto of Futurist Music"

~  ~  ~  
Vladimir Ussachevsky (1911-1990)
John Cage (1912-1992)
~  ~  ~  
Luigi Russolo, "The Art of Noises"

~  ~  ~  
Milton Babbitt (1916-    )
Pietro Grossi (1917-2002) - pioneer of computer music
~  ~  ~  
Theremin invented by Léon Theremin

~  ~  ~  
Iannis Xenakis (1922-2001)
Lejaren Hiller (1924-1994) - pioneer of computer
Luciano Berio (1925-2003)
Earle Brown (1926-2002)
Morton Feldman (1926-1987)
Gottfried Koenig (1926-    )
David Tudor (1926-1996)
Pierre Henry (1927-    ) - pioneer of the musique concrète
~  ~  ~  
Ondes Martenot invented by Maurice Martenot

~  ~  ~  
Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928-2007)
Robert Ashley (1930-    )
Mauricio Kagel (1931-2008)
Alvin Lucier (1931-    )
François Bayle (1932-    )
Pauline Oliveros (1932-    )
Morton Subotnick (1933-    )
Mario Davidovsky (1934-    )
Christian Wolff (1934-    )
~  ~  ~  
Audio Tape Recorder invented

~  ~  ~  
Gordon Mumma (1935-    )
Terry Riley (1935-    )
David Behrman (1937-    )
Delia Derbyshire (1937-2001)
~  ~  ~  

1948, October 5th
Pierre Schaeffer's "Etude aux chemins de fer" broadcast on French radio

Elektronische Klangerzeugung: Elektronische Musik und Synthetische Sprache
(Stockhausen's thesis)

Lejaren Hiller & Leonard Isaacson:Iliac Suite for String Quartet
. . . first complete work of computer-assisted composition

Forbidden Planet - film score by Louis & Bebe Barron composed entirely
w/electronic circuits & tape recorders

BBC Radiophonic Workshop established

early 1960's
Live electronics pioneered by members of Milton Cohen's "Space Theater" in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Buchla Music Box, the first electronic synthesizer, invented by Don Buchla

Moog Synthesizer invented by Robert Moog

"Switched-On Bach" by Walter/Wendy Carlos and Benjamin Folkman released

1983, August
MIDI Specification 1.0 finalized

Sound Art Resources
Electronic Music
Electronic Music @ Wikipedia

Electronic Music Composers @ Classical Composers Database
Electronic Music @
Electronic Music @ mfiles
Electronic Music @ Synthtopia/Pioneers of Electronic Music
Electro-Acoustic Music/Electronic Music - a guide to top electronic music websites @ Zeroland
The Electronic Century (Joel Chadabe,
    - Part I: Beginnings
    - Part II: Tales of the Tape
    - Part III: Computers and Analog
    - Part IV: The Seeds of the Future
Electronic Music Foundation
Electronic Music Historical Overview @ Indiana University/Elechist
Electronic Music History Overview @ UTSA Electronic Music Studio
The History of Electronic Music @ pHinnWeb
History of Electronic and Computer Music, including Automatic Instruments and Composition Machines
    (compiled and annotated by Dr. Kristine H. Burns)
120 Years of Electronic Music

The Barrons: Forgotten Pioneers of Electronic Music (Susan Stone, NPR)
The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music (Nicholas Collins, et al, Cambridge Univ Pr,
Canadian Electronic Music Timeline (HorizonZero)
The Development of Electroacoustic Music in Colombia, 1965–1999: An Introduction (Lucio Edilberto Cuellar Camargo)
Electronic and Computer Music (Peter Manning, Oxford Univ Pr,
Electronic and Experimental Music: Technology, Music and Culture (Thom Holmes, Routledge,
Electronic and Experimental Music: Pioneers in Technology and Composition (Thom Holmes, Routledge,
Electronic Music History (
Electronic Music Interfaces (Joseph Paradiso, MIT Media Laboratory)
Electronic, Tape & Electro-Acoustic Laptop Music Inspirations (
A History of Electronic Music Pioneers (David Dunn)
Introduction to Electronic Music (University of Sussex/School of Infomatics)
Living Electronic Music (Simon Emmerson, Ashgate Pub,
The Musical Significance of Electronic Music (Hubert S. Howe, Jr.)
OHM- The Early Gurus of Electronic Music (Jason Gross, Perfect Pitch Forever)
OHM - Electronic Music: Where Technology Becomes Art (Peter Gutmann, Classical Notes)
The Psychology of Electronic Music (Petri Toivianen)
Selected Examples of Electronic/Computer Music (Peter Gena)
A Short History of Electronic Music (

Computer Music
A Chronology of Electronic and Computer Music and Related Events, 1906 - 2010 (Paul Doornbusch)
Computer Music @ Wikipedia
Electronic and Computer Music (Peter Manning, Oxford Univ Pr,
History of Electronic and Computer Music, including Automatic Instruments and Composition Machines
    (compiled and annotated by Dr. Kristine H. Burns)

Electroacoustic Music
Electroacoustic Music @ Wikipedia

Electroacoustic Composers @ Wikipedia
Electroacoustic Composers @ Facebook
Electro-Acoustic Music/Electronic Music - a guide to top electronic music websites @ Zeroland
Electroacoustic Music @ The Canadian Encyclopedia
Electroacoustic Music @ Intuitive Music
Electroacoustic Music @ Seamus Online
Electroacoustic Music @ Synthtopia

Analysis and Analyses of Electroacoustic Music (Laura Zattra, University of Padua)
Avant Garde Project - 20th Century Classical, Electroacoustic, Avant Garde Music
Award-winning Compositions Realised in the Electroacoustic Music Studios (University of Birmingham, UK)
A Chronology of Electronic and Computer Music and Related Events, 1906 - 2010 (Paul Doornbusch)
The Development of Electroacoustic Music in Colombia, 1965–1999: An Introduction (Lucio Edilberto Cuellar Camargo)
Digital Music Archives
EAR/Electro-Acoustic Research
EARS/ElectroAcoustic Resource Site (DeMontfort University)
Electronic, Tape & Electro-Acoustic Laptop Music Inspirations (
Electroacoustic Music: Analytical Perspectives (Thomas Licata, Greenwood Pub,
Electroacoustic Music in Mexico (Rodrigo Sigal, Centro Mexicano para la Música y las Artes Sonoras, Mexico)
A Journey of Sound Through the Electroacoustic Wires - Art and New Technologies in Latin America (Ricardo L. Dal Farra, University of Quebec, Montreal)
Juan Blanco: Cuba's Pioneer of Electroacoustic Music (Neil Leonard)
Latin American Electroacoustic Music Collection (Daniel Langlois Foundation for Art, Science, and Technology)
Musicology of Electroacoustic Music [MEM] (EARS/ElectroAcoustic Resource Site)
National Laboratory of Electroacustic Music (Laboratorio Nacional de Musica Electroacustica/LNME)
On Electro-acoustic Music (William Harris)
The Orchestra and Electroacoustic Music: A Challenging Mix (Sam Hamm)
A Perceptual Approach to the Description and Analysis of Acousmatic Music (W.L. Windsor, City University)
Robert Worby's History of Electroacoustic Music (Robert Worby, London Sinfonietta)
Selected Discography of Women's Electroacoustic Music (compiled by Elizabeth Hinkle-Turner)

Electronic, Computer and Electroacoustic Centers and Associations
Asociación de Música Electroacutica de España (AMEE) (Spain)    also    here
Boreal Electro-Acoustic Music Society (BEAMS) (Edmonton, AB, Canada)
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (Stanford University)
Center for Contemporary Music (Mills College, Oakland, CA)
Center for New Music and Audio Technologies (UC Berkeley)
CNMAT/The Center for New Music and Audio Technologies (University of California at Berkeley)
Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (New York, NY)
Conservatorium van Amsterdam - Electronic Music (Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
Cornell Electroacoustic Music Center (Cornell University)
DIEM/Danish Institute of Electronic Music
Electroacoustic Music (Ithaca College, NY)
Electroacoustic Music Studies Network (Electronic Music Foundation)
Electroacoustic Music Studios (Queen's University School of Music)
Electro-Acoustic Music Studios (University of KwaZulu-Natal)
Electroacoustic Music Studios & BEAST/Birmingham ElectroAcoustic Sound Theatre (University of Birmingham, UK)
Electronic Music at UAlbany (SUNY Albany, NY)
Electronic Music Foundation
Electronic Music Midwest (Lewis University, Romeoville, IL)
Electronic Music Studios (London)
Electronic Music Studios (University of California, Santa Cruz)
Electronic Music Studios (University of Iowa)
EMS/Elektronmusikstudion - Centre for electroacoustic music (Stockholm, Sweden)
FEMS/Florida Electroacoustic Music Studio (University of Florida School of Music)
Gassmann Electronic Music Studio (Claire Trevor School of the Arts, University of California, Irvine)
HUSEAC/Harvard University Studio for Electroacoustic Composition
International Computer Music Association
Int'l Confederation of Electroacoustic Music (ICEM)/La Confédération Internationale de Musique Electroacoustique (CIME)
International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression
Institute for Computer Music and Sound Technology/ICST (Zurich School of Music, Switzerland)
The Lab
Lejaren Hiller Computer Music Studios (University at Buffalo, NY)
McGill Electronic Music Studio (Concordia Archival Project)
The ONCE GROUP, the ONCE Festival of New Music & Milton Cohen's Space Theater in Ann Arbor, Michigan
Peabody Computer Music at John Hopkins University
Qwartz Electronic Music Awards
San Francisco Tape Center (San Francisco, CA)
Society for Electroacoustic Music of the Czech Republic
The Sonic Arts Union (1966-76)
Sonic Research Studio (Simon Fraser University) (Moscow, Russia)
Studio d'Essai (Paris)
Studio of Electronic Music, Inc. (Hartford, CT, USA)
The University of Texas at Austin Electronic Music Studios
Visual Music: IQBIT - Electronic Music Composer

Electronic, Computer and Electroacoustic Festivals
Electronic Music Midwest (Lewis University, Romeoville, IL)
San Francisco Electronic Music Festival (San Francisco, CA)
Sonic Circuits Festival of Experimental Music (Washington, DC)  -   September 2010
Spark Festival of Electronic Music and Arts (University of Minnesota)
Third Practice Electroacoustic Music Festival (Modlin Center for the Arts, University of Richmond, VA)

Selected Discography
Discography of Philips' "Prospective 21e Siècle" Series (compiled by Ed Maurer)
    - French pressings [41 titles]
    - Dutch pressings [1 title]
    - English pressings [4 titles; duplicates of French pressings]
    - Japanese pressings [3 titles; duplicates of French pressings]
    - Spanish pressings [1title; duplicate of French pressing]

Electronic Panorama: Paris, Tokyo, Utrecht, Warszawa (1970), 4 LPs [Philips' "Prospective 21st Siecle" Series]
(available online at  Internet Archive Avant Garde ProjectAGP 13    and    AGP 14 )
    LP 1: Groupe De Recherches Musicales De L'O.R.T.F.
        - Ivo Malec: Spot [1:35]
        - Luc Ferrari: Visage V [10:32]
        - Guy Reibel: 2 Variations En Étoile [16:42]
        - Bernard Parmegiani: Ponomatopées [6:15]
        - Bernard Parmegiani: Générique [1:15]
        - Pierre Schaeffer/Pierre Henry: Bidule En Ut [2:00]
        - Ivo Malec: Dahovi II [7:15]
        - Pierre Schaeffer: Étude Aux Allures [3:28]
        - François Bayle: Solitioude [2:15]
    LP 2: Studio Voor Elektronische Muziek Utrecht
        - Jaap Vink: Screen [7:30]
        - Milan Stibilj: Rainbow [3:25]
        - Frits Weiland: Textuur [4:16]
        - Jacob Cats: Lux [3:35]
        - Alireza Maschayeki: Shur [5:12]
        - Luctor Ponse: Radiophone [3:22]
        - Jos Kunst: Expulsion [9:00]
        - Gottfried Michael Koenig: Funktion Blau [6:11]
    LP 3: Studio Of Radio NHK, Tokyo
        - Toshiro Mayuzumi: Mandara [6:20]
        - Maki Ishii: Kyoō [13:15]
        - Minao Shibata: Improvisation [9:32]
        - Makoto Moroi: Shōsanke [13:20]
    LP 4: Studio Eksperymentalne Polskie Radio
        - Krzysztof Penderecki: Psalmus [5:05]
        - Andrzej Dobrowolski: Musique Pour Bande Magnétique Et Hautbois Solo [9:00]
        - Arne Nordheim: Solitaire [12:00]
        - Włodzimierz Kotoński: Microstructures [8:02]
        - Bogusław Schaeffer: Symphonie [16:53] [performed according to the graphic score by Bohdan Mazurek]

Selected Discography of Women's Electro-acoustic Music (University of North Texas)

. . . and more
from The Wizards Laboratory (1972) on YouTube
Clara Rockmore - the master of the notoriously difficult Theremin, and later championed by synthesizer-creator Bob Moog
Louis and Bebe Barron
Else Marie Pade
Elaine Radigue
Michele Bokanowski
Daphne Oram
Maddalena Fagandini
Glynis Jones
Elizabeth Parker
Yoko Ono
Pril Smiley
Daria Semegen
Wendy Carlos
Annette Peacock
Beatriz Ferreyra
Maggi Payne
Cynthia Webster


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